Phaenomena: yang nampak dari benda
Edmund Husserl: dari gejala kita bisa tahu hakekat sesuatu à zu de Sachen selbst
è Sebagai metode:
1. Bebaskan diri dari prakonsepsi
2. Amati gejala dengan sungguh-sungguh
3. Ambil ide dari apa yang dilihat
Definisi: Fenomenologi agama adalah suatu usaha untuk menyelidiki esensi dan makna gejala-gejala keagamaan dan mengelompokkan gejala-gejala menurut macamnya, lepas dari ruang dan waktu.
Fenomenologi berusaha untuk memahami suatu fenomena agama atau gejala-gejala tertentu/khas dari agama.
The phenomenology of religion concerns the experiential aspect of religion, describing religious phenomena in terms consistent with the orientation of the worshippers. It views religion as being made up of different components, and studies these components across religious traditions so that an understanding of them can be gained. The phenomenological approach to the study of religion owes its conceptualization and development to Pierre Daniël Chantepie de la Saussaye, William Brede Kristensen and Gerardus van der Leeuw.
Chantepie de la Saussaye
Employing the terminology of Hegel, Chantepie divides his science of religion into two areas of investigation, essence and manifestations, which are approached through investigations in philosophy and history, respectively. However, Chantepie’s phenomenology “belongs neither to the history nor the philosophy of religion as Hegel envisioned them”. For Chantepie, it is the task of phenomenology to prepare historical data for philosophical analysis through “a collection, a grouping, an arrangement, and a classifying of the principal groups of religious conceptions”. This sense of phenomenology as a grouping of manifestations is similar to the conception of phenomenology articulated by Robison and the British; however, insofar as Chantepie conceives of phenomenology as a preparation for the philosophical elucidation of essences, his phenomenology is not completely opposed to that of Hegel.
William Brede Kristensen. Kristensen’s phenomenology “adopts many of the features of Chantepie’s grouping of religious phenomena,” and penetrates further into the intricacies of Chantepie’s phenomenological approach.
For Chantepie, phenomenology is affected by the philosophy and history of religion, but for Kristensen, it is also the medium whereby the philosophy and history of religion interact with and affect one another. In this sense, Kristensen’s account of the relationship between historical manifestations and philosophy is more similar to that of Hegel than it is to Chantepie. In defining the religious essence of which he explores historical manifestations, Kristensen appropriates Rudolf Otto’s conception of das Heilige (“the holy” or “the sacred”). Otto describes das Heilige with the expression “mysterium tremendum”—a numinous power revealed in a moment of “awe” that admits of both the horrible shuddering of “religious dread” (tremendum) and fascinating wonder (fascinans) with the overpowering majesty (majestas) of the ineffable, “wholly other” mystery (mysterium).